Some frequently used strategies to resolve cognitive dissonance include discrediting the speaker or source of information, viewing yourself as an exception, seeking selective information that supports your originally held belief, or intentionally avoiding or ignoring sources of cognitive dissonance (Cooper & Nothstine, 1996). The trial judge can exclude irrelevant facts and stop argument if it occurs. SAMPLE OPENING STATEMENT A. Persuasive Message Strategy Description of the Strategy Capture the reader’s attention and interest. Think of how stirring Martin Luther King Jr.’s “I Have a Dream” speech was due to his ability to evoke the emotions of the audience. Edit. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs states that there are several layers of needs that human beings pursue. The following are guidelines to achieve this goal. Attention getter: “We must accept the reality that to confine offenders behind walls without trying to change them is an expensive folly with short-term benefits—winning battles while losing the war.” These words were spoken more than thirty years ago by Supreme Court Justice Warren Burger, and they support my argument today that prisoners should have access to education. Credibility and relevance: While researching this topic, my eyes were opened up to how much an education can truly affect a prisoner, and given my desire to be a teacher, I am invested in preserving the right to learn for everyone, even if they are behind bars. Explain how speakers appeal to logos and pathos. When using the indirect strategy in a persuasive message, you should place the reasons and explanations A) in the closing of the message. … Before closing, tell the audience you are about to close your speech. Ideally, you do not want them to have many unanswered questions. In a persuasive message, for instance, this summary helps prove the opening thesis by confirming that the body of evidence and argument supported it convincingly. An entry on eHow.com by Kinney about the benefits of prisoners getting GEDs notes that a successful educational program in a prison can create a more humane environment that will positively affect the officers and staff as well. The statistic is followed by safety tips to empower the audience to address the threat. The first tier of the education program should focus on remediation and basic skills, which is the most common form of prisoner education as noted by Foley and Gao in their 2004 article from the. Gaining attention in the opening. 68% average accuracy. The second tier should prepare prisoners who have not completed the equivalent of high school to progress on to a curriculum modeled after that of most high schools, which will prepare them for a GED. Life skills such as budgeting, money management, and healthy living can increase confidence. It is often said that the important parts of a speech are the opening and closing remarks and everything in between is filler. Some speakers attempt to appeal to self-actualization needs, but I argue that this is difficult to do ethically. Lead into your central strategy . Chapter 1: Introduction to Communication Studies, 4.1 Principles and Functions of Nonverbal Communication, 5.4 Listenable Messages and Effective Feedback, Chapter 6: Interpersonal Communication Processes, 6.1 Principles of Interpersonal Communication, 6.2 Conflict and Interpersonal Communication, 6.3 Emotions and Interpersonal Communication, 6.4 Self-Disclosure and Interpersonal Communication, Chapter 7: Communication in Relationships, 8.2 Exploring Specific Cultural Identities, 8.4 Intercultural Communication Competence, 9.2 Researching and Supporting Your Speech, 10.2 Delivery Methods and Practice Sessions, Chapter 11: Informative and Persuasive Speaking, Chapter 12: Public Speaking in Various Contexts, 12.1 Speaking in Personal and Civic Contexts, Chapter 14: Leadership, Roles, and Problem Solving in Groups, 14.1 Leadership and Small Group Communication, 14.3 Problem Solving and Decision Making in Groups, Chapter 15: Media, Technology, and Communication, 15.1 Technological Advances: From the Printing Press to the iPhone, 15.2 Functions and Theories of Mass Communication, 16.3 New Media, the Self, and Relationships. An effective public speaker will use this opportunity to deliver a powerful speech that will be memorable for the audience. Close your speech by repeating your main point, perhaps reminding the audience of your opening story. The conclusion is the bill, showing what you just digested, and the body is the meat and potatoes. After you have determined your speech's purpose, you clearly understand the occasion, and you know the demographics of the audience, then it is time to develop a theme for your speech. Whether you are lobbying for a change in a state law or for a coffee machine in the break room at work, properly chosen words can have a powerful impact on the people with the power to change … Education doesn’t just improve the lives of the prisoners; it also positively affects the people who work in prisons. As you can see, none of those actually results in a person modifying their thinking, which means persuasive speech goals are not met. A)When writing a persuasive message,always use the indirect organizational strategy. Such programs also allow prisoners to do more productive things with their time, which lessens violent and destructive behavior and makes prison workers’ jobs safer. Opening Body Closing. 1. Mary Fisher’s speech at the 1992 Republican National Convention, “A Whisper of AIDS,” is one of the most moving and powerful speeches of the past few decades. In short, by clearly showing an audience why one position is superior to another, speakers do not leave an audience to fill in the blanks of an argument, which could diminish the persuasive opportunity. According to statistics from 2010, as cited in the. Select the most effective opening for a persuasive letter that invites a state representative to speak at your organization's Flag Day celebration. Mary Ellen Guffey & Dana Loewy, Essentials of Business Communication, 9th Edition. Describe central selling points. While we might think that exposure to conflicting information would lead a rational person to change his or her mind, humans aren’t as rational as we think. Prisoner education can also save cash-strapped states money. His claim is supported by data collected directly from prisoners, 94 percent of whom identify education as a personal reentry need—ranking it above other needs such as financial assistance, housing, or employment. What advice should the following for the OPENING of her request? The main point of your message directs the reader to act (e.g., buy your product or service), so its appearance at the end of the message—rather than at the beginning—is what makes an AIDA pitch indirect. Organize and write persuasive messages. A sales message is the central persuasive message that intrigues, informs, persuades, calls to action, and closes the sale. Write a Persuasive Sales Letter Word 20. English. When do fear appeals cross the line? The audience will feel reassured if they know that the solution you are offering is versatile and can be applied to multiple problems. Opening Statements . The closer the needs are to the base, the more important they are for human survival. DRAFT. It is often difficult for someone who is an expert on a subject to cast aside a particular fact, story, or section of a speech. 1. Your first place to start is with the organization where you will be speaking. Here’s an analogy. The message plan: Opening Body Closing 28. B. Marshall. After all, a person who doesn’t have food, air, or water isn’t very likely to want to engage in persuasion, and it wouldn’t be ethical to deny or promise these things to someone for persuasive gain. We will learn about nine persuasive strategies that you can use to more effectively influence audience members’ beliefs, attitudes, and values. Pathos refers to emotional appeals. Speakers can also appeal to logos by citing personal experience and providing the credentials and/or qualifications of sources of information (Cooper & Nothstine, 1996). Perceptions of trustworthiness come from the content of the speech and the personality of the speaker. As you move from one fact to another or from one section to another section of your speech, always ensure that your audience can understand their interconnectedness. Just as you do with all other speeches, you begin your research with the audience in mind. Retrieved from http://www.ehow.com/list_6018033_benefits-inmates-getting-geds_.html. Not all speeches need to inform or motivate an audience, but entertaining speeches, just like all other types of speeches, still need to follow some organizational structure. Dynamism refers to the degree to which audience members perceive a speaker to be outgoing and animated (Stiff & Mongeau, 2003). Negative and Persuasive Messages. These are often things we do by ourselves and for ourselves, so I like to think of this as sacred ground that should be left alone. The ___strategy of delivering bad news does not reveal the news immediately, but allows the writer to explain the reasons before the bad news. Describe a problem, state something unexpected, suggest reader benefits, offer praise or compliments, etc. Think about the tone of your essay when choosing a closing statement. During the editing phase, you must make some decisions about what stays in the body of your speech and what must be deleted. There is a difference between a speech and a standup comic routine. It’s okay if your closing contains a surprise – but not if your closing is the surprise! You might have opened your speech, for example, with a heroic story of how one particular employee worked very hard to accomplish a major company initiative. In terms of content, trustworthy speakers consider the audience throughout the speech-making process, present information in a balanced way, do not coerce the audience, cite credible sources, and follow the general principles of communication ethics. (2011). A. appeal to the receiver’s sense of responsibility and pride in the company’s good name. What strategies are effective for persuasive messages flowing upward? There are many different mental and logical acrobatics that people do to get themselves out of dissonance. B. Marshall. Speakers are more likely to be successful at focusing on safety, social, and self-esteem needs. Body. While I know from our audience analysis activity that some of you do not agree with me, you never know when this issue may hit close to home. I think the problem is that many people spend so much time on the opening attention-getter, on organizing the main points, using the rule of three, inserting humor, etc., that they run out of steam when it comes to end. Whether your sales message is embedded in a letter, represented in a proposal, or broadcast across radio or television, the purpose stays the same. Simply retelling the argument in your closing … Describe potential benefits. Make a promise. Jessica De Boeck Opening and Closing Strategies in YouTube Vlogs 10 of everyday conversational interaction can be subjected to rigorous analysis” (Schegloff 1968: 1075). Basic general education goals include speaking, writing, listening, reading, and math. appeal to the receiver’s sense of responsibility and pride in the company’s good name. Ethos refers to the credibility of a speaker and is composed of three dimensions: competence, trustworthiness, and dynamism. Make any changes that you think are appropriate and incorporate the feedback you received. Simply put, according to the article in the. They want to be entertained with a quick, light, and sometimes humorous speech. You have to cast aside your pride occasionally to ensure that your speech is well written. If you can incorporate humor at this point, feel free to do so. Logos relates to the reasoning and logic of an argument. Not every sales message will make a direct sale, but the goal remains. Not every sales message will make a direct sale, but the goal remains. Identifying Persuasive Strategies in Mary Fisher’s “Whisper of AIDS” Speech. The Persuasive Message Strategy Presentation. A sales message is the central persuasive message that intrigues, informs, persuades, calls to action, and closes the sale. The conclusion of a motivational speech is to convince those people who are somewhere in between that what you are saying is genuine. The video and transcript of her speech can be found at the following link: http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/maryfisher1992rnc.html. (New York: Guilford Press, 2003), 142. The main point of your message directs the reader to act (e.g., buy your product or service), so its appearance at the end of the message—rather than at the beginning—is what makes an AIDA pitch indirect. In the body of your persuasive message, you will reduce resistance by. Effective speakers should use emotional appeals that are also logically convincing, since audiences may be suspicious of a speech that is solely based on emotion. Describe the strategy for composing persuasive messages in the table below. Ensure that the body of your speech contains an adequate number of comparisons. Our social needs relate to our desire to belong to supportive and caring groups. Do not consider going back later to flesh out the details in a particular part of the speech. Detail the main parts of a sales message and understand strategies for success; A sales message is the central persuasive message that intrigues, informs, persuades, calls to action, and closes the sale. 30 seconds . Explain how cognitive dissonance works as a persuasive strategy. A publicly supported radio station may persuade listeners to donate money to the station by highlighting a potential contribution to society. Broad Range of Expression Permitted 3.1. When writing persuasive claim or complaint letter, you should. Regardless of your speech's specific purpose, the main objective of an entertaining speech is to build good feelings among the audience members. She uses, more than once, all the persuasive strategies … A. We all have a need to think well of ourselves and have others think well of us, which ties to our self-esteem needs. Communication in the Real World by University of Minnesota is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted. Speakers appeal to logos by. • Present the sales message using imagination, persuasive language, and you-viewpoint. 2. What coping strategies, of the ones discussed in the chapter, did you use to try to restore cognitive balance? Never underestimate the power of a persuasive letter to further a cause. List at least one example of how the speaker utilizes cognitive dissonance. Detail the main parts of a sales message and understand strategies for success . Make sure it is complete. Offer a gift, promise, or guarantee satisfaction. Write routine message types such as information shares, requests, and replies; complaints and claims; and recommendation and goodwill messages. Return to the Persuasive Messages Topics Menu. Explain logically and concisely the purpose of the request. Sample Sales Letter for IT Services. Return to the Persuasive Messages Topics Menu. African Americans' knowledge about organ donation: Closing the gap with more effective persuasive message strategies December 2003 Journal of the National Medical Association 95(11):1066-71 Some notes, when played together on a piano, produce a sound that’s pleasing to our ears. The second structure is really a spoof of the Point and Proof structure. Do not attempt humor unless you are comfortable doing so. With your speech's main message defined, it is time to gather your facts, figures, evidence, and other supporting material for your speech. While these labels may be accurate in many cases, they do not do much to move the prisoner toward rehabilitation. Pathos refers to emotional appeals. Foley, R. (2004). … The body of the speech is where you offer the evidence to support your main message. This is the stage where you will research your topic, analyze the audience, decide on the tone of your speech (formal, informal, and so on), clearly define the speech's main message, … Explain why you have chosen this story and how the rest of your speech might relate to it. If you are giving a motivational speech that appeals to the audience's emotions, the body of your speech should be prioritized. 4. Let us take a detailed look at the process of writing the body of your speech. Some population-specific areas of study that wouldn’t be covered in a typical classroom include drug treatment and anger management. Even if the main purpose is to entertain a group of people, there may be an additional purpose that needs to be taken into consideration. Play this game to review Other. The audience will like to know the reasons why something happened as well as the outcome. Transition: The model for prisoner education that I have just outlined will have many benefits. You open with a story, just as described above, but rather than presenting anecdotes that support your main story, you present stories that are meant to be sarcastic, humorous, or otherwise not to be taken seriously. Speakers who rely primarily on appeals to pathos may be seen as overly passionate, biased, or unable to see other viewpoints. The topic sentence explains that the paragraph will focus on this one point to persuade your readers. 17. Ehow.com. Many people who are invited to deliver a public speech are simply being asked to entertain an audience. Develop a strong topic sentence for the body paragraph that connects to one of the topics from your persuasive thesis. Such a speech is complimentary to an employee but you must be careful to alternate between humorous anecdotes and ones that are slightly more serious. Near the end of a speech, some audience members will be completely convinced of your argument, some, unfortunately will be vehemently against your point, and many might be somewhere in between. Your opening argument can be very helpful for creating a closing statement. Combining safety needs and negative motivation, a speaker may convey that audience members’ safety and security will be put at risk if the speaker’s message isn’t followed. Positive and negative motivation can be combined with social appeals. Download. Give all the information needed by avoid long unnecessary information. You do want your speech to have a central theme. We also learned an organizational pattern based on theories of motivation: Monroe’s Motivated Sequence. The presence of fallacies would obviously undermine a speaker’s appeal to logos. Like persuasion, coercion is a process whereby thoughts or behaviors are altered. Such a speech is complimentary to an employee but you must be careful to alternate between humorous anecdotes. It is all relevant and interesting. A persuasive letter is a communique that is drafted by a person to another party to consider his point of view or give his course some worth considering. Describe a problem. Messages that combine appeals to self-esteem needs and positive motivation often promise increases in respect and status. 5 Persuasive Message Strategy Opening Body Closing Description Of The Strategy Type Answer Here Type Answer Here Type Answer Here 18. What information could be added to the closing to make it easier for the receiver to respond? The conclusion should allay their fears of committing to your point of view. So why does prisoner education help reduce recidivism rates? B)If you are asking for something that you know will be approved,use the indirect organizational strategy. Prisoner education is also needed to break a cycle of negativity and stigma that many prisoners have grown accustomed to. supong_t_09030. These courses will teach prisoners basic reading, writing, and math skills that may be lacking. Each terms stands for a piece of the message to the reader. Open your speech with a short story. Rewards can be used for positive motivation, and the threat of punishment or negative consequences can be used for negative motivation. They are ethos, logos, pathos, positive motivation, negative motivation, cognitive dissonance, appeal to safety needs, appeal to social needs, and appeal to self-esteem needs. The conclusion of your speech needs to accomplish three main goals. Dr. King used powerful and creative language in conjunction with his vocalics to deliver one of the most famous speeches in our history. The psychologically based persuasive appeals we will discuss are cognitive dissonance, positive and negative motivation, and appeals to needs. However, in reality, there is only so much time that an audience's attention will be at full capacity. Body: Build interest. Speeches whose purpose is to entertain are usually shorter than other types of speeches, sometimes even shorter than the 20-minute standard that is followed by most pubic speakers. Offer something valuable, promise a benefit to the reader, ask a question, or provide a quotation, fact, product feature, testimonial, startling statement or personalized action setting. Using concrete and descriptive examples can paint a picture in your audience member’s minds. Prove the merit of your request with evidence and facts. Persuasion is often confused with another kind of communication that has similar ends, but different methods—coercion. Use facts, statistics, expert opinion, examples, and specific details. Matters of Historical Fact, … Educating prisoners can benefit inmates, those who work in prisons, and society at large. Select the most effective opening for a persuasive request that invites a state representative to speak at your organization's Flag Day celebration. This letter is utilized by persons from all walks of life. (Mario Medina Presentation) If applicable, it would be a good idea to show how the reader can benefit from your request. Since emotions are often reactionary, they fade relatively quickly when a person is removed from the provoking situation (Fletcher, 2001). Save. Opening . Prepare a message (or perhaps a set of closely-related messages/activities) that you might create for your campaign (as you described it in your Overview/Audience Paper). A student in a school may draft it to persuade the school to drop corporal punishments, for instance. 5. Mary Fisher’s speech at the 1992 Republican National Convention, “A Whisper of AIDS,” is one of the most moving and powerful speeches of the past few decades. Their self-esteem needs. Permissible Content Used in Statements and Arguments and Misconduct Issues. When writing the body of your speech, you might consider using a cause and effect framework for the presentation of your ideas. You want to give the audience reassurance. 17. I. Persuasive Message Strategy Description of the Strategy Opening Type answer here Body Type answer here Closing Type answer here 18. Most professional speech writers agree that the body of a speech should be written first, before you decide on an appropriate opener. (New York: Longman, 2001), 342. Closing. Mettamatt – Smoking ad campaign – CC BY-SA 2.0. 3. Februrary 2, 2013, Oakwood University, Dynamic Priase, http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/maryfisher1992rnc.html, http://www.ehow.com/list_6018033_benefits-inmates-getting-geds_.html, Next: Chapter 12: Public Speaking in Various Contexts, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. Competent speakers must know the content of their speech and be able to effectively deliver that content. • Include sufficient information to convince. Two components of dynamism are charisma and energy. The second structure is really a spoof of the Point and Proof structure. What should she do in her opening? Journal of Correctional Education, 55(1), 6–21. How to Write The Body and Conclusion of Your Great Speech. It is now time to write your first draft. Once these general education requirements have been met, prisoners should be able to pursue specialized vocational training or upper-level college courses in a major of study, which may need to be taken online through distance learning, since instructors may not be available to come to the actual prisons to teach. Effective Speech Reading: The Body and Conclusion. Bayliss, P. (2003). Education may be something the average teenager or adult takes for granted, but for a prisoner it could be the start of a new life. 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