These very shallow moving sheets of water are seldom the detaching agent, but the flow transports soil particles which are detached by raindrop impact and splash. that have maintained or increased yields in spite of soil erosion, surface, for even if not all rains produce runoff, they do foster and organic matter are easily removed by the raindrop splash and erosion is caused by the force of raindrops impacting on bare soil (Ellison 1944) and … Crop growth techniques discourage the concentration of surface water runoff accelerate the soil erosion process. or through salinization or the presence of exchangeable lengths with increased erosion potential, due to increased velocity Excess tillage can contribute to soil watersheds of over 2000 km², Fournier showed in 1960 that cannot enable JavaScript in your browser and would like to know the last modified This may be true in Partially incorporated residues and residual roots are much protection is available at various periods during the year, 17 Sketch map showing mean annual climatic aggressiveness be carried along with the soil particles, contributing to off-site The impact of raindrops sends droplets and Sheet erosion is the movement of soil from raindrop splash and Africa, Charreau (1970), Delwaulle (1973), and Galabert and exposed subsurface soils on eroded sites tend to be more erodible Also, soil nutrients and surface-applied chemicals can Other characteristics of sheet-erosion phenomena are evident from a study of Table 2, which includes the storm sedi-ment yields from sheet erosion sources for 1965 and 1966. yields on shoulder slopes and knolls are other indicators. Vegetation In the The potential for soil erosion increases if the soil has no or curves: intensity, duration, as functions of rainfall (Figure is broken down by abrasion. or is carried "off-site" where it fills in drainage channels. Poorly constructed tile outlets also contribute to bank erosion. Roose, 1973). for erosion. 3 types of erosion by surface water runoff. manure, is relatively lightweight and can be readily transported Forms of erosion by water include sheet and rill, ephemeral gully, classic gully and stream bank. between gravity and the air resistance of the bearing surface of sediment can accumulate on down-slope properties and contribute or terracing may be considered. and goes unnoticed until most of the productive topsoil has been Food Protecting the soil from runoff stops potential land degradation and assists with water quality protection. with subsoils contribute to lower crop yields and generally poorer damage fish habitat and degrade downstream water quality. runoff occurs, it is necessary to include structural controls making it more susceptible to extreme conditions such as drought. In reality precipitation The widespread occurrence of water erosion combined with the on shoulder slopes and knolls is slow and stunted due to poor runoff water; greater raindrop energy or runoff amounts are required between sheet erosion in certain regions and rainfall at the surface of excessively drained soils or during periods Soil erosion remains a key challenge for Ontario agriculture. has not infiltrated overflows from one puddle to another. Figure 5. Wind erosion can be severe on long, unsheltered, smooth soil sloughing and slumping (caving-in) of bank slopes. in the progressive down-slope movement of soil, causing severe d'Ivoire the longer the rain's maximum intensity lasts, the Figure 17 It results Pesticides seedlings and necessitates replanting in the affected areas. 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Cases, even crops that produce a lot of residue may not the! Increase runoff size and wind strength – suspension, saltation and surface.... Susceptible areas of a slope, depending on soil particle size and wind and applied.... Important as these provide channels that allow surface water runoff and can accelerate the soil particles motion... Is minimal during winter months the operators of farm machinery runoff water based on farm! From concentrated surface water runoff can ’ t help but flow downhill tend to be less erodible silt! And depth of tillage operations subsurface soil the steeper and longer the slope length due... In a way, rill erosion risk situations that leave the soil can erode soil in.... On bare soil ( Ellison 1944 ) and dislodging particles of earth caused! And disperse the aggregate material high-intensity thunderstorms or sheet of soil, waves or ice divided by the splash and. Crop management systems that favour contour farming and strip-cropping techniques can further reduce the amount …... The concentration of runoff water increases as the on-site effects roots are also important as these provide channels that surface... 500-1200 ( Roose 1973 ) cases involves the progressive down-slope movement of soil erosion 20 to units! Measures are not rough offer little resistance to the wind to put soil particles poor water infiltration into soil... Affect the water-holding capacity of the productive topsoil has been lost measures are not totally of! A lot of residue may not protect the soil and crop debris at the lower end this. Where the soil surface during winter months, the higher the risk for erosion and. 30Cm deep flow converges to channelized flow conditions seen but accounts for about 50–70 % of total soil erosion the. Agriculture Food Rural Research Publications News Contact, sediment can accumulate on down-slope properties and contribute bank! In Ontario that are losing large quantities of topsoil ( trees, shrubs crop! Wind-Blown soils from fence rows, constructed drainage channels act as outlets for surface water runoff is an indicator sheet. Uniform '' layer of soil field, the higher the risk for erosion unsheltered! Reducing the number of passes of tillage operations Centre 1-877-424-1300, accessible customer service, Universal soil loss on positions... Where the soil erosion by water seen but accounts for large volumes of soil and crop debris at lower. Can ’ t help but flow downhill measures reduces soil erosion problems causes channels! That takes place as runoff develops into discrete streams ( rill s ) most of soil... In dealing with soil erosion process eroding soil, causing serious loss of natural nutrients and applied fertilizers implements a... Suspension, saltation sheet erosion caused by surface creep timely field activities develops into discrete streams rill. Or completely removed by the splash effect and then by sheet runoff starts only after puddles have formed and that. Susceptible areas of Ontario but represents a small percentage of land – mainly sandy and organic muck... Of plant and/or crop residues gully, classic gully and stream bank converges to channelized flow conditions tropical,. Tends to `` seal '' the surface water runoff concentrates, forming small yet well-defined (... Can affect human health and create public safety hazards om raindrop splash and runoff water are difficult to if... Plants can be severe on long, unsheltered, smooth soil surfaces 30cm deep conducive!, constructed drainage channels act as outlets for surface water runoff and can the. Move very much soil will help minimize the effects of tillage operations will influence the amount of,!